Efforts to better understand the mechanisms of sebum production are underway. The aim of this research is to develop medications that target and interfere with the hormones that are known to increase sebum production (e.g., IGF-1 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).[10] Additional sebum-lowering medications being researched include topical antiandrogens and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators.[10] Another avenue of early-stage research has focused on how to best use laser and light therapy to selectively destroy sebum-producing glands in the skin's hair follicles in order to reduce sebum production and improve acne appearance.[10]

Corticosteroid injections may be used to treat large, painful lesions. These injections can ease the pain and help clear a large lesion more quickly. A systemic acne treatment that you may have heard about is isotretinoin (aka Accutane). This is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat severe resistant nodular cystic acne, the most severe form. Dr. Turner does use Accutane in appropriate patients, however it is typically a five- to six-month course of therapy, which requires monthly office visits.
This is a low foaming formula that doesn’t produce much lather or foam which, for some, may be quite drying. It’s non-comedogenic and moisturizing, without being oily, leaving skin feeling soft and smooth. As the name suggests, it’s the best normal and oily skin types, and for some with combination skin. Due to its low-foaming nature, it doesn’t strip skin of natural oils, promoting skin health and healthy cell growth and protection. However, it may not be good for people with sensitive skin types.
All acne is not, actually, created equal. This makes perfect sense, seeing as there are so many factors — i.e. hygiene, hormones, and genetics — that can both lead to and exacerbate your breakouts. But knowledge is power, and just knowing that there are different types, and that each kind requires its own plan of attack, puts you ahead of the clear-skin curve. Once you figure out what you're working with, it gets far easier to treat. Here, your ultimate guide to identifying, and then taking down, every type of acne out there, according to dermatologists. Find out how to identify and deal with the different kinds of acne, including blackheads, whiteheads, blind pimples, and cystic zits.
How to Handle It: Your best bet is benzoyl peroxide. "Benzoyl peroxide can kill acne-causing bacteria and reduce inflammation," says Zeichner. Try a cream like the La Roche-Posay Effaclar Duo Dual-Action Acne Treatment ($37), which also exfoliates with lipo-hydroxy acid. Be aware that it can seriously dry out skin so moisturize well after you use it.
If your acne is severe, painful, or refusing to get lost, you may just be beyond what an over-the-counter treatment can do. Not only can a professional set you up with the really powerful stuff, but also Fitz Patrick explains that “working closely with an aesthetician or dermatologist means you can keep tweaking a routine to make it work best for you.”
Benzoyl Peroxide penetrates deep into the upper layers of the skin and destroys the bacteria that cause acne. The product is recommended for use twice a day: in the morning before applying conventional cosmetic care products and in the evening. The skin is gradually smoothed and becomes soft and delicate, pores are narrowed, and you are guaranteed a young and fresh look!
Clascoterone is a topical antiandrogen which has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of acne in both males and females and is currently in the late stages of clinical development.[120][121][122][123] It has shown no systemic absorption or associated antiandrogenic side effects.[122][123][124] In a direct head-to-head comparison, clascoterone showed greater effectiveness than topical isotretinoin.[122][123][124] 5α-Reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride may be useful for the treatment of acne in both males and females, but have not been thoroughly evaluated for this purpose.[1][125][126][127] In addition, the high risk of birth defects with 5α-reductase inhibitors limits their use in women.[1][126] However, 5α-reductase inhibitors can be combined with birth control pills to prevent pregnancy, and are frequently used to treat excessive hair in women.[125] There is no evidence as of 2010 to support the use of cimetidine or ketoconazole in the treatment of acne.[128]
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While a few people suffer from acne that is so severe it requires a medical prescription from a doctor, most people with mild to medium acne problems can find decent over-the-counter treatments that really work. The first key to getting your acne cleanser right is to know what active ingredients combat your acne, and then finding an acne treatment that contains it. Here are a few of the ingredients you want to look for:
The Anti-Redness Exfoliating Solution is mostly water, but its 2 percent salicylic acid is enough to eat through oil and remove the dead skin cells clogging your pores — and it boasts a higher concentration than nearly every other kit we looked at. Sodium hyaluronate, the super-moisturizing humectant we fell in love with in our review on the Best Face Moisturizer, also caught our eye sitting smack dab in the middle of the ingredients list.
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